Viewed in terms of power politics, the state which is neutral towards worldviews can be content with the mere conformity of the religious communities to a legally imposed freedom of religion and science. The position Of the Catholic Church in Europe until the Second Vatican Council, for example, was marked by conformity. However, the liberal state cannot be content with such a modus vivendi, and not simply on account ofthe instability of such an enforced arrangement. For, as a constitutional democracy, it depends on a mode of legitimation founded on convictions. ln order to acquire this legitimation, it requires the support of reasons which can be accepted in a pluralist society by religious citizens, by citizens of different religions and by secular citizens alike. The constitutional state must not act only neutrally towards worldviews but it must also rest on normative foundations which can be justified neutrally towards worldviews — and that means in postmetaphysical terms. The religious communitieshlc cannot turn a deaf ear to this normative requirement. This is why those complementary learning process in which the secular and the religious sides involve one another come into play here.